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高中英语第二轮复习《英语书面表达的写作技巧》

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《英语书面表达的写作技巧》
学会构成句子的基本要素
英语句子的成分
英语句子是由单词或短语按照法规则组合到一起的。每
一个句子的要素由不同的词类充当,它们分别在句子中充当主语、谓语、宾语、表语、宾语补足语、定语、状语、同位语和插入语。因此,学好句子成分是写好作文的基础。
1.主语  英语句子中,主语时谓语动词所发出动作的执
行者,一般在谓语之前。能做主语的主要词类及结构有:名词、代词、数词;动词不定式、动名词;主语从句或其他具有名词性质的结构。
例如:
1.Tom is good at playing the violin.汤姆擅长拉小
提琴。
2.They have become more and more popular.他们变得
越来越流行了。
3.Five will be enough.五个就够了。
4.To master a foreign lanuage is very important.
掌握一门外语很重要。
5.Playing football in the street is dangerous.在
街上踢足球是危险的。
6.Whether he will jurn us in the discussion is of
great importance.他是否参加我们的讨论很重要。
2.谓语
说明主语的性质/特征/状态或身份,根据不同的情况可
有不同的时态和语态,谓语动词由实义动词或系动词担任。助动词或情态动词加其他动词的适当形式也构成谓语动词。注意谓语动词的主谓一致和恰当使用时态和语态。例如:
1.Action speak louder than words.
2.The chance may never come again.
3.Tom was very sick at heart.
4.Mary has been working at the dress store since
1999.
5.He was not recognized by many people.
3.宾语
宾语时动作、行为的对象,是动作的承受者,既可以指
人,也可以是物或事。能做宾语的词类和结构有:名词、代词(注意其宾格形式)、数词及其构成的短语;动名词、动词不定式;the+形容词(指一类人或物);疑问句+不定式和宾语从句。例如:
1.Who knows the answer?
2.He has refused to help them.
3.He enjoys reading.
4.He admits that he was mistaken.
5.We should respect the old.
6.He is considering what to do next.
4.表语
表语是放在系动词之后说明主语是什么或者出于什么状
态、具有什么特性的句子成分。主要用在“主语+系动词+表语”结构中。英语中能作表语的词类或结构有:名词、代词、形容词、少数副词、介词短语、动词不定式、动名词及表语从句。
1.What they need are the apples in the basket.
2.The film had been on for half an hour.
3.These two cups are of the same price.
4.What surprised us was his not passing the test.
5.Hearing the frightening sound,all the children
feel frightened.
6.What worried him was how to deal with the
waste.
7.It seems as if he has been told the truth.
5.定语
定语时对名词或代词起修饰、限定作用的词、短语或句
子,汉语中常用“...的”表示。定语通常位于被修饰的成分前。但以下几种情况定语须后置:
1.若修饰some,any,every,no构成的复合不定代词时,(
如something/nothing)I have something interesting to tell you.
2.不定式、分词短语、从句作定语时,则定语通常放在
被修饰词的后面。
Anyone who breaks the law is to be punished.
3.副词用作定语时也要放在被修饰词之后。
People there used to go skating in their spare
time.
4.有些特殊形容词作定语时须后置。alive(活着的),
present(出席的),concerned(有关的)等。
He wanted all the books concerned.
5.else 修饰不定代词或疑问词时须后置。
What else do you want to buy?
1.The little boy needs a blue pen.
2.They need two pens.
3.The girl in the classroom needs a pen.
4.The smiling boy needs a pen bought by his
mother.
5.The boy who is reading needs a pen.
6.状语
状语说明地点、时间、原因、目的、结果、条件、方向
、程度、方式和伴随状况等。英语句子中能作状语的主要有副词、介词短语、动词不定式、分词、独立主格结构以及状语从句。例如:
1.He plays the piano wonderfully.
2.In front of the house stands a tall tree.
3.Walking along the river,I saw a large ship.
4.The boy bought an alarm clock to get up early
in the morning.
5.He entered the classroom.nose res with cold.
6.He left the classroom after he had finished his
homework the other day.
7.补语
补语的作用对象是主语和宾语,在句法上是不可缺少的
。补语是起补充说明作用的成分。最常见的是宾语补足语。英语句子中可以作补语的有:名词、动名词、形容词、副词、介词短语、动词不定式、现在分词、过去分词都可以在句子中作宾补。例如:
1.We elected him monitor of our class.
2.She found it diffcult to do the work.
3.She would like the children to read newspapers
and books.
4.Tom spoke loud to make himself heard.
5.We hearr him singing in the hall.
6.The guards won't allow anybody in without the
manager's permission.
8.同位语
同位语是前面的名词进一步的解释或补充说明,可由名
词、代词、-ing分词、动词不定式、形容词(或他们的短语),以及同位语从句等构成。例如:
1.Mary herself had got a medal for her work for
the aged.
2.Most people in our company,particulaly Tom and
Jane,are good at dancing.
3.The thought came to him that he should
immediately leave the hotel.
4.Our English teacher often asks us to speak so-
slowly,loudly and clearly.
9.插入语
插入语是插在句子中的一个词,短语或从句,通常被逗
号、破折号或句子的其他部分隔开,它与句子的其他部分之间没有语法上的关系,为独立成分。插入语在句中通常是对一句话的一些附加解释,说明或总结;有时表示说话者的态度和看法;有时起强调的作用;有时是为了引起对方的注意;还可以起转移话题或说明事由的作用;也可以承上启下,使句子与前面的语句衔接的更紧密一些,从而使文章前后连贯、流畅。
可以做插入语的有形容词、副词、接粗短语、非谓语动
词、习惯语以及一些简短的句子。
例如:1.It's a great mistake,I think,not to
accept their proposal.
2.He was,strange as it seems,an excellent
sportsman.
3.Judging from his appearance,he seems to be a
atrong man.
4.Your performance didn't reach the required
standard,in other words,you failed.

 

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