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高中英语第二轮复习《英语句子的五种基本句型》

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《英语句子的五种基本句型》
英语句子有长在短,有简有繁,从现象看,似乎现编万户,难以捉摸,但从实质看,可以发现其内在联系,找出其共同规律。英语句子的基本结构可以归纳成五种基本句型及其扩大、组合、省略或倒装。掌握这五种基本句型,是掌握各种英语句子结构的基础。
英语五种基本句型如下:
句型一:主+谓
句型二:主+系+表
句型三:主+谓+宾
句型四:主+谓+间宾+直宾
句型五:主+谓+宾+宾补
句型一:主+谓 结构
该句型的句子有一个共同特点,那就是,句子的谓语动
词是不及物动词,且动词本身能表达完整的意思。后面可以跟副词、介词短语、状语从句等对该动词进行修饰
1.The sun was shining.
2.The moon rose.
3.The two workers had to stay at home/at the
factory.
4.We all breathe,eat,mand drink.
句型二:主+系+表 结构
该句型的句子有一个共同的特点:句子谓语动词都不能
表达一个完整的意思,必须加上一个表明主语身份或状态的表语构成符合谓语,才能表达完整的意思。这类词语叫做连系动词。系动词分两类:be,look,feel,smell,taste,sound等属一类,表示情况;get,grow,become,turn,go等属另一类,表示变化。be本身没有什么意义,只起连系主语和表的作用。其它系动词仍保持其部分词义,如:stay,prove,remain,stand.
1.This is an English-Chinese dictionary.
2.The dinner smells good.
3.He fell in love.
4.Everything looks different.
5.He is growing tall and strong.
6.The trouble is that they are short of money.
7.Our well has gone dry.
8.His face turned red.
句型三:主+谓+宾 结构
该句型句子的共同特点是:谓语动词都具有实义,都是
主语产生的动作,但不能表达完整的意思,必须跟一个宾语,即动作的承受者,才能使意思完整。这类动词叫做及物动词。
1.Who knows the answer?
2.She smiled her thanks.
3.He has refused to help them.
4.He enjoys reading.
5.They ate what was left over.
6.He said"Good morning."
7.I want to have a cup of tea.
8.He admits that he was mistaken.
句型四:主+谓+间接宾语+直接宾语 结构
该句型的句子有一个共同特点:谓语动词必须跟有两个
宾语才能表达完整的意思。这两个宾语一个是动作的直接承受者(称为直接宾语),另一个是动作的间接承受者(称为间接宾语)。通常这一间接承受者用一个介词来连接,当动作的间接承受者在动作的直接承受者之前时,这一介词往往被省略。
1.She ordered herself a new dress.=She ordered a
new dress for herself.
2.She cooked her huaband a delicious meal.=She
cooked a delicious meal for husband.
3.He brought you a dictionary.=He brought a
dictionary to you.
4.I showed him my pictures.=I showed my pictures
to him.
5.I gave my car a wash.
6.I told him that the bus was late.
7.He showed me how to run the machine.
句型五:主+谓+宾+宾补   结构
该句型的句子的共同特点是:动词虽然是及物动词,但
是只跟一个宾语还不能表达完整的意思,必须加上一个补充成分来补足宾语,才能使意思完整。
1.They appointed him manager.
2.They painted the door green.
3.This set them thinking.
4.They found the house deserted.
5.What makes him think so?
6.We saw him out.
7.He asked me to come back soon.
8.I saw them geeting on the bus.
五种基本句型的运用
在实际写作中,常用的英语句子并不能像基本句型这样
简短,这些句子除了基本句型的成分不变外,通常是在这些成分的前面或后面增加一些修饰语加以扩大。这些修饰词可以是单词,也可以是各种类型的短语。下面以基本句型五为例:
原句为:We found the hall full.我们发现礼堂坐满了

上面的这个句子内容还不够充实,增加内容后:
1.We found the great hall full of students and
teachers.我们发现大礼堂坐满了学生和教师。
2.We found the great hall full of students and
teachers listening to an important report.我们发现大礼堂坐满了学生和教师,在听一个重要报告。
3.We found the great hall full of students and
teachers listening to an important report made by a professor from Oxford University on current affairs in East Europe.我们发现大礼堂坐满了学生和教师,在听牛津大学的一位教授有关东欧局势的重要报告。
提高书面表达得分常用的一些重点句型
1.It is/was+表示时间的名词+when+从句。(该句型不
是强调句型,而是以when引导的定语从句。)如:
It was 2012 when he graduated from the
University.请比较:It was in 1999 that he came back from the United States.
2.It is suggested/ordered/commanded/...that
+clause.(从句的谓语动词用should do,但should可以省略,)如:
It is suggested that the meeting should be put
off.有人建议推迟会议。
3.It is/was said(reported...)+that+从句。如:
It was said that he had read this novel.据说他读
过这篇小说。=He was said to have read this novel.
4.It is impossible/necessary/strange...that
clause.(从句中的谓语用should+do/should have done,其形式是虚拟语气。)
如:
It is strange that he should have failed in this
exam.真奇怪,他这次考试没有及格。
5.It is/was +被强调部分+tthat(who)+其他。如:
It wasn't until he came back that I went to bed.
直到他回来我才睡觉。(一定要注意被强调句型中的谓语动词否定的转移)。
6.It seems that sb. do/be doing/have done/had
done=sb.seems to do/be doing/have done/to be done/to have been done
如:It seemed that he had been to Beijing before.
他好像以前去过北京。=He seemded to have been to Beijing before.
7.It (so) happened (chanced)that
+clause.=sb.happened/chanced to do sth.=sb. did sth. by chance.如:
It happened that he was in when I got there.当我
到那儿时,碰巧他在。=He happened to be in when I got there.=It chanced that he was in when I got there=He was in by chance when I got there.
8.It is+一段时间+since+主语+did.请比较:It was+一
段时间+since+主语+had done.如:It is ten years since he came here.他来这儿已经十年了。
9.It +谓语+一段时间+before+主语+谓语(before引导
的是时间状语从句。)如:It will be three hours before he comes back.三个小时之后他才能回来。
10.It is+形容词(possible,impossible,necessary等
)+for+sb.+ to do.如:
It is necessary for me to finish this work before
tomorrow.我明天之前完成此工作时很有必要的。
11.It is +(心理品质方面的)+形容词+of+sb. +to
do.=主语+be+形容词+to do.(常用的形容词有:kind,stupid;foolish,goos,wise等)如:
It is kind of you to help me.=You are kind to
help me.你真好给我提供了帮助。
12.由as 引导的非限定性的定语从句。如:
As we know,he is a most excellent student.众所周
知,他是个很优秀的学生。相当于:It is well=known that he is a most excellent student.(前一个是定语从句,而后者是个主语从句。)
13.No matter what/which/who/where/when/whose+从句
,+主句(注意从句中的时态一般情况下用一般现在时态。)如:
No matter what you do,you must do it well.请比较
:Whatever you do,you must do it well.无论你做什么,一定要做好。
14.祈使句,+and/and then+主句。(注意:祈使句也可
用一个名词短语。)如:
Use your head,and you will find a good idea.动脑
筋想一想,你就会想出一个好注意。
15.If + necessary/impossible/important 等,+主句
。(注意:if与形容词之前的it is被省略。)如:
If necessary,I will do it.如果有必要的话,我来做
此事。
16.主句+due to/because of/owning to/+the fact
that+从句。如:
He did not come to school because of the fact
that he was ill.由于生病,所以他没有来上学。
17.Immediately/Directly/Instantly/As soon as/The
moment/The instant/The minute+从句,+主句。如:
The machine will start immediately you press the
button.你一按电钮机器就会开动。
18.No sooner +had+主语+done...than+主语+did。相当
于:主语+had+no sooner+done...than+主语+did。如:
No sooner had I got to Beijing than I called you.
我一到北京就给你打电话了。相当于:I had no sooner
got to Beijing than I called you.
19.Hardly/Scarcely/Rarely+had+主语
+done...when/before+主语+did.相当于:主语+had+hardly/Scarcely/Rarely+done...when/before+主语+did.
Hardly had she had supper when she went out.她一
吃完晚饭就出去了。相当于:She had hardly has supper when she went out.
20.so+形容词、副词+特定动词(助动词或系动词)+主
语+...+that+从句
So angry was he that he couldn't speak .
他气的说不出话来。
21.Such was+主语+that+从句。(这是个完全倒装句。
)如:
Such are the facts,no one can deny them.这就是事
实,没有人能否定他们。
22.主句+only+to do sth.(only和动词不定式连用表示
意想不到的结果)如:
I woke up very early only to find that my wife
has gone to work.我醒的很早,结果发现我的妻子已经上班了。
23.The +形容词比较级.....,(主句)the +形容词比
较级+...如:
The sooner you do it,the better it will be.
越早越好。
24.主语+谓语+倍数+as+形容词原级+as+被比较的对象。
如:
This room is three times as large as that one.
这个房间是那个房间的三倍大。
25.主语+谓语+百分数、倍数+形容词比较级+than+比较
的对象。如:
This city is twice larger than ours.这个城市比我
们城市大两倍。
26.主语+谓语+the size/length/which/height+of+被比
较的对象。如:
Our school is twice the size of yours.我们的学校
是你们的两倍大。
29.Were/Should/Had+主语+谓语,+主句。如:
Should it rain,the crops would be saved.如果下雨
,农作物就得救了。
30.Only +状语+特定动词+主语+谓语...
Only in this way can I do this work well.
只有这种方式我才能做好这项工作。

 

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