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高中英语第二轮复习《书面表达常用过度连接手段及英语中的标点符号》

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《书面表达常用过度连接手段及英语中的标点符号》
书面表达常用过渡连接手段
一篇好的书面表达句与句之间、段与段之间的过渡一低
昂要自然而且巧妙,这样会使文章连贯自然、上下呼应。下面介绍一些常见连词:
1.并列关系:and,both...and...,not only...but
also...,neither...nor...
2.转折关系:but,however,nevertheless(不过,然而)
3.对比关系:while,whereas(然而)
4.选择关系:or,either...or...,not...but...
5.因果关系:for ,thus,so
请观察下面两段文字,比较修改后的效果。
修改前:Li Hua had a little toy bear.She liked it
very much.She went to school and took it.One day Li Hua lost her toy on her way back home.She didn't find it.She was very sorry.Her brother knew it and bought a new toy bear for her.Li Hua was happy.She had a new friend.

修改后:Li Hua had a little toy bear and she liked it very much.Whenever she went to school she took it with her.One day Li hua lost her toy when she was going back home and she didn't find it.How sad she felt!When her brother knew this,he bought a new one for her.Li Hua smiled again because she had a new friend.
代词的替代作用在英语文章中十分常见,可以有效地避
免重复,同时也是灵活的过渡连接手段。除了常用的代词外,也可使用关系代词引导非限制性定语从句达到上下自然连贯的目的。如:
Li Hua bought a new computer yeaterday.The
computer is a modern but expensive computer.It was made in America.
这几句话给人一种太罗嗦的感觉,请看修改后的效果:
Li Hua bought a new computer yeaterday and it is
a modern but expensive one,which was made in America.
很明显,修改后语句显得简洁精练、行文流畅。
有时为了对前面的句子进行进一步的解释说明、转移话
题、强调、拓展或者连接上下文,经常使用插入语进行过度,这样可以使文章更生动。下面介绍几种常见插入语.
1.用在句子开头:above all,to begin with,as is
known to all,first of all,firstly,generally speakig,...
2.用来表示总结:in conclusion ,in a word,all in
all,in brief,in short,to sum up,to conclude,in total...
3.表示转折:on the contrary,on the other hand,
(much) to one's surprise/delight/disappointmant...,
4.表示结果:therefore,thus,at last,in the
end,finally,as a result
5.列举事例:for one thing...for another,on the
one hand...on the other hand,for example,take...for example
6.表示强调:believe it or not,to tell you the
truth,in fact,in reality,as a matter of fact,namely,that is to say
7.表示递进:besides,what's more,moreover,last but
not least,worse still,in particular,what's more important,to make things worse
学好英语中的标点符号
1.句点(.)句点用于当一句话完全结束时。也可以用于
英文单词的缩写,如Mrs.,Dr.,A.M等。但要注意的是当缩写的字母形成了一个单词的时候就不要使用句点。如IBM,DNAD等。注意:英文中的句号是实心圆点,不要错用成了汉语中的空心句号。如:I wonder if you can borrow some money from her.
2.问号(?)问号要用在一个直接的问句后,而不是间接
的。如How will you solve the problem?是正确的用法,但用在I wonder how you will solve the problem?就不对了,应该使用句点而不是问号。另外,在客气的用语中,也是用句点而不是问句。如Will you please give me a call tomarrow.
3.感叹号(!)感叹号用于感叹和惊叹的陈述中
How hard they are working!
以上三个标点符号均用来表示一个完整句子的结束。
4.分号(;)与中文一样,分号用于分割地位平等的独立
句子。在某些情况下,使用分号比使用句点更显出句之间的紧密联系,另外分号也经常与连接副词thus,however,therefore 一起使用(放在这些词语之前)。如I realize I need exercise;however,I'll lie down first to think about it.需要注意的是:一个完整的句子以大写字母开始,以句点结束。写英文时用都点代替句点、分号、冒号或破折号叫“逗号错”,这正是中国学生所要避免的。请比较下列例句:误:(It) was raining hard,(they) could not work in the fields.注意:上面句子中划横线的部分是两个不同的主语,而且逗点前后的句子是完整的-单独拿出来都能代表一个完整的意思。因此,用逗号违反了英文规定,即一个句子只能有一套主干。正:It was raining hard;they could not work in the fields.或者It was raining hard.They could not work in the fields.
5.冒号(:)1)冒号用于对后面内容的介绍或解释,如
:This is her plan:go shopping.
2)冒号用于名单之前,特别是一个竖排的名单。
We transferred three employees to new branches.
branches:
.Tony Wang to New York City.
.Mike Jackson to Tokyo.
当名单横排的时候,冒号要用在一个完整的句子之后,
如We need seven people:three students,three tngineers,and a professor.
3)冒号用于数字时间的表示,如16:45或4:45p.m
4)冒号用于主标题和副标题之间.
6.逗号(,)1.逗点用于分隔一系列的简单内容,如I
will go to Shanghai,Beijing,and Shenzhen.
2.逗点用于修饰名词的多个形容词之间,如a
small,fancy bike.
3.逗点用于连接两个较长的独立子句,而且每个句子的
主语不同,如They were out of work,and Miller had little money.
4.逗点用于关联的子句之间,如Since he's your
younger brother,please take care of him.
5.逗点用于直接引用的句子之前,如Mary said,"Let's
go fishing."(注意:这里说的和上面提及的冒号在直接引语中的使用不一样。如果是引用比较正式的发言讲话就要用冒号,一般情况下就用逗点。)如果句中含有间接引语就不需要逗点,如Mary said we should go fishing.在反问句之前要使用逗点,如:He worked very hard,didn't he?
7.省略号(...)省略号无论出现在句首、句中、还是句
尾,都是表示单词的省略。“If that is the way you think...just go back to school,"he said.注意:句后的省略号和句号的写法应是在一条直线上的四个黑点。前三个黑点表示省略号,后一个黑点表句号。Don't use so many ands in....
应注意的几个问题
1.比较中英文标点符号可见,英文标点中没有中文形式
的顿号、书名号、句号和省略号。
2.英文中的省略号其实是三个分号的并列,许多学生由
于受中文影响常错误地把英文省略号写成六点。
3.英语一般使用逗点而不用破折号。英文中破折号的用
法远没有中文的丰富。
4.句号、问号、感叹号后首字母应大写。

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